Office design is a design art form in itself or better said, a specialization within interior design. A comprehensive understanding of human psychology is paramount as well as the varying needs of every profession, sound issues, storage and flow. At home we think we can take the easy route, "I only need a desk and chair" you're say to yourself, but really we all need the same things regardless of where the "office" is: a quiet, well designed space where we can focus on the matter at hand rather than trying to find important documents which were poorly filed or not filed at all, good light, natural light access, a supportive chair and a desk which is of ample size to meet our needs and most importantly, last but not least, storage, storage and more storage.
They add that special something apart from lighting your view
I am a second generation designer. My mother was head of Public Work in Canada and oversaw the redesign of federal government offices (yes that included the PM's office) and all official residences. I grew up full submerged in design. I lived and breathed design. Its no wonder that I entered this world. Office design on large scale is all about functional use of space, creatively maximising the use of the space as well and providing enough space around each person so they can feel independent enough to get work done, yet still feel the camaraderie of the work space. Fast forward to the digital boom and we now have "office clubs" where people gather to work, yet no one works at the same company. The way people work has changed. People are more isolated while more, and more people are living alone. The best aspect of these work clubs is the interaction and exchange of ideas. But lets focus on the your home office, since you, like the rest of the world, want or need a home office for work or simply to organise your life when not at work.
Natural light and a view are two requirements that make a great office. A view can be into the room or out a window. The change in distance is important since most of time we stare at a computer screen which is an arms length away. Having the change in view will exercise the eyes. There are enough studies around the world to demonstrate that we work better near and with natural light. Our energy levels are higher when exposed to natural light and fresh air, and your eyes are less stressed by the end of the day. Desk to chair ratio is important and what height to put the monitor (assuming you're not a luddite). We all have a computer of some form in the house. Paper storage while still slightly old world, it does make life easier when you have to do your taxes rather than sort through all the months of bills you paid online... print them the moment you pay them, then store them. Yes we're still not in a paperless society. Desk lamp. Another item often overlooked item. "Overhead lighting is fine." Hmmm not really. Again its about your eyes and creating a special space with lighting. That "its got something-but-I-don't-know-what" element. Lighting creates ambience as well as illuminating the space. Its a "win win" since you'll like your desk more and ultimately be seated at it longer, getting that much more done for more free time to enjoy life. That is assuming you're not playing video games on the desktop.